Monuments to visit near Querença
Photo of Castelo de Tavira, Portugal: internal aspect of one of the doors.
The Castle of Tavira located in the city of the same name, Town of Santiago, Distrito de Faro, Portugal.
Castelo de Tavira
Dominant over the mouth of the river Asseca, the town developed as a major seaport since antiquity.
Although the early human occupation of the region dates back to prehistoric times, an archaeological campaign undertaken in 1997, brought in a stretch of wall dating from the Phoenician eighth century BC, proving the existence of a warehouse or a colony established here by that people of sailors and traders.
At the time of the Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the village, then called Ferry, acquired strategic importance due to the construction of a bridge over the River. Although have not been located material remains of a fort in this period, it is believed that a posting has garnished this stretch of the old Roman road.
Although archaeological evidence dates from the Muslim village to the eleventh century, the first written information about you back to the first half of the twelfth century, when it was called at-Tabira, referring to his fortress in the context of struggles between Almoravids and Almohads, which led to submission of the village Almunine emir in 1168:
"This year the Almohad tightened their siege of the Castle of Tavira traitor against him stirred up, Abdalá ibne Ubaid Allah, narrowing strongly by land and sea. They settled in Castle Cacela with his numerous army, attacking [Tavira] days and night, getting all the time advantage over his enemies with his decision to withdraw its damage and prevent the evils that have caused since the beginning of the year 546 [starts April 20, 1151] by the end of the year 563 [ends on 17 October 1167], for they meet inside miscreants of all kinds, thieves and adventurers who disturb and rebelled and did harm to Muslims by land and sea in all regions. And it was a concern for the people across the Straits and the Andalusian looting of goods from travelers and merchants on land and sea.
The emir Almumine besieged [Tavira] twice in the days of his emirate in Seville, but you resisted and defended himself with his evil against it until surrendered God in his caliphate for his good fortune at the end of the month Dulce [ends on September 4, 1168] the years that historians. "(Ibne Sahib al-Sala. Bil Al-Mann-Imam)
Tavira was, then, along with Santa Maria al-Harum (now Lagos) and Silber (current Silves), one of the biggest towns of al-Gharb al-Andalus.
The medieval castle
At the time of the Christian reconquest of the peninsula, the Portuguese forces reached the eastern Algarve from 1238. Tavira was won in June 11, 1239 (May 1240, according to Alexandre Herculano 1242 seconds or other sources), the forces of King Palo Peres Correia, Master of the Order of Santiago. The tradition associated with this achievement the Order that a reprisal for the deaths of seven of its riders in an ambush while hunting at the site of Antas (Town of Light).
The January 9, 1242 (1244 seconds or other sources), Sancho II of Portugal (1223-1248) donated the areas of Tavira and the patronage of his church to the Order of Santiago, donation confirmed in 1245 by Pope Innocent IV.
Claiming that the city had been conquered by a military order Castile, Alfonso X of Castile claimed it for himself, coming to impose siege and conquer it in 1252. The following year, signed a treaty by which Alfonso III of Portugal (1248-1279) marry the daughter of Alfonso X, and if this union one son that resulted were to complete the seven years, the maternal grandfather would give as gifts Algarve. Since the conditions of this law was completed in 1264, Alfonso X gave the Algarve by Afonso III a letter dated September 20, set in Seville. Due to this act, the Portuguese king granted charters to several villages in the Algarve, the first of which Tavira in August 1266.
Under the reign of King Dinis (1279-1325), the castle was repaired and strengthened and expanded around the village (1292), as epigraphic inscription. Date of this period the erection of the Watchtower. The sovereign, by Royal Charter in 1303, extended the privileges of residents, preventing their property was seized or sold except for debts to the Crown.
At the time of the crisis of 1383-1385, the Master of Avis donated Reguengo of Tavira, Fernão Alvares Pereira, brother of the Constable Nuno Alvares Pereira. Later, after the conquest of Ceuta, started the process of the Portuguese discoveries, the town would see its strategic importance and economic increase. The castle, however, present a risk of collapse, according to the complaint of its people before the Courts, 1475.
Under the reign of King Manuel I of Portugal (1495-1521), the town received the Provincial New (1504), raising it to a city on March 16, 1520, among other important privileges. Is your local mayor at the time Vasco Eanes Corte-Real.
In 1573, when D. Sebastian (1568-1578) visit Tavira, are in progress the construction of Fort St. Anthony (Fort Mouse), opposite the mouth of the river Gilão in 1577.
War of the Restoration to the present day
Later, in the context of the War of Restoration of Independence, D. John VI (1640-1656) confirms all the privileges granted by his predecessors Tavira, determining the modernization efforts of the medieval castle, reinforcing its structure and adapting it to the shots of the then modern artillery. The defense of the village will be completed in 1672 at the start of construction of the Fort of São João da Barra de Tavira, on Gomera, the border river bar Gilão in 1717.
In the eighteenth century the structure of the castle will be severely damaged by the earthquake of 1755, which certainly contributed to that in the centuries following the defensive perimeter of the village was dismantled to a great extent.
The walls of the Castle of Tavira are classified as National Monument, a decree on 16 May 1939.
The walls of Tavira show several constructive steps, the oldest of which dates back to the period Almoravid, in the late eleventh or early twelfth century. Although difficult to identify, is believed to have been composed of a fortress in the southeast angle and a walled enclosure oriented in a north-south, both of modest dimensions.
This initial structure was reformed in the Almohad period, when it acquired the main elements that have come down to this day, remains of which survive in mud walls. In the area of the current square, next to the building of BNU, was discovered in an ancient gate of a horseshoe arch, associated in its origin, a defensive tower. In the area of the current fortress still retains a watchtower, multifaceted and facing south, detached from other structures.
From the conquest by the Christians, a new stage ensued, giving it the sole oval still identifiable, that in the Middle Ages, was around five hectares, area for considerable time and which shows the importance of the village. This period are highlighted in the interventions made under the reign of King Afonso III and D. Dinis, believed to date back to the latter the remains identified in the grounds of Castle board, as well as their own original configuration of port D. Manuel, in broken bow still in the Gothic style. In the transition to the modern age, came to this port become the main point of passage between the inner and outer walls, which is why her arms are part of the sovereign.
The legends of the Moorish Castelo de Tavira
Local tradition says that the castle, there is a Moorish delighted that every year on the night of St. John, appears to mourn his fate. She was the daughter of Aben-Fabila, the Moorish governor, when Tavira was conquered by the Christians disappeared by magic, after enchanting daughter. It is said that he would return to win the city and so rescue the daughter, but never succeeded.
Another legend tells a great passion of a Christian gentleman, D. Ramiro, the enchanted Moor. On the night of St. John, when the knight saw the Moorish crying on the battlements of the castle, was impressed both by their beauty as the misery of their condition. Madly in love, decided to climb the walls of the castle for the disenchanted. The task, however, proved difficult, and the rider took so long to rise to the dawn broke, thus increasing the time to be able to break the spell. At that time, the Moor came in tears to the cloud that hovered above the castle, while D. Ramiro watched helplessly. Knight's frustration was of such magnitude that henceforth they worked with great zeal to fight the Moors, and even won a house, but no other Moorish to love.
The legend of the seven knights
It is said that during a truce between Christians and Moors, six Christian knights went hunting on the site of tapirs, near Tavira, been killed by the Moors. Their names were D. Pedro Pires (Peres and Rodrigues, commander of the Order of Santiago de Castilla), Member of the Valley, Mr (or Damião) Vaz, Alvor (Alvaro) Garcia (Garcia or Estevam), Stephen (Estevam) Vaz (Vasques), Beltrão Caia and more a Jewish merchant named Garcia Roiz (or Robinson). The author Christopher Rodrigues Acenheiro gives the names of six knights as: D. Pedro Paes, Men of the Valley, Duram Vaz, Alvaro Garcia, Estevam Vaz and Boceiro of Coja. In retaliation for these deaths, setting the breaking of the truce, is that Christians have promoted the achievement of Tavira.
Another episode, also legendary, says this primitive legend: the time of Afonso IV of Portugal (1325-1357), circa 1328, Alfonso XI of Castile imposed siege of Tavira. At that time, the Castilian forces
"... having established camp in the Church of San Francisco. On Saturday morning, and when he chose the best site pra saw storm the walls of the church of Santa Maria 7 figures with huge hands and flags them the weapons of the Apostle Santiago. Amazed called advisers who told him to these figures the seven knights who died at the conquest of Tavira from the Moors and were the guardians of the city. King to know this and devotion to the Knights soon became martyrs to his kingdom without harm in Portugal. " (Friar John of St. Joseph).
Tavira, Portugal: the city view from the top of the castle walls.